The responses of vascular cells such as endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells to cardiovascular stents and vascular grafts are crucial for determining the success of these devices. The inhibition of smooth muscle cells is important for preventing neointimal hyperplasia while an enhanced endothelial cell growth can prevent late thrombosis. Also, the interaction of blood platelets with these devices as well as other cardiovascular medical devices such as heart valves, pacemaker leads, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, ventricular assist devices, cardiopulmonary bypass, and artificial heart are crucial for determining the blood compatibility of these devices. This symposium will highlight the advances in cardiovascular biomaterials and the responses of vascular and blood cells to these materials. The innate and immune responses to the novel cardiovascular biomaterials will also be covered in this symposium. A special emphasis will be provided to the evaluation of cardiovascular medical devices under clinical and preclinical settings.