Biologically derived polymers and composites offer excellent opportunities in the biomaterials field. This versatile class of materials includes biopolymers (polyhydroxy alkanoates, hyaluronic acid), polysaccharides (starch, chitin/chitosan, alginate) or proteins (collagen, fibrin, silk fibroin) enabling developing engineered systems with outstanding biological performance. The recent interest in the use of decellularized tissues as matrices for regenerative medicine offers also new avenues to use this class of materials to solve various unmet clinical needs. The innovative use of its characteristics, taking advantage of the similar structure or composition with respect to biological tissues, enables designing high performance solutions for biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioactivity of biomaterials. Also the advanced areas of tissue engineering, drug delivery and smart/active/adaptative systems may benefit from the wealth of natural polymers existing in nature.